Who is Soteria?

A: Pronounced so-te-ria, Soteria was the Greek goddess of safety, deliverance, salvation and preservation from harm. Soter was Soteria's male counterpart and presumably a daughter of Dionysos or Zeus.

What are some signs of addiction?

A: - Little self-control by abusing a substance for a long time.
- Neglecting activities such as: Spending less time on activities that used to be important (hanging out with family and friends, exercising, pursuing hobbies or other interests) because of the use of drugs or alcohol; drop in performance and increase in absenteeism at work or school.
- Issues with Relationships: Acting out against those closest to them, particularly if someone is attempting to acknowledge their substance problems.
- Increase in Secrecy: Going out of their way to hide the amount of drugs or alcohol consumed or hiding the activity, no reasonable explanation for increased injuries or accidents.
- A Change in Appearance: Changes in physical appearance or decline in hygiene o – disheveled appearance, lack of bathing, unclean clothes.
- A Family History: A person that has a family history of addiction can drastically increase one's tendency to substance abuse.
- Decrease in Tolerance: Over time, the body adapts to a substance to the point that one needs more of it in order to have the same feeling.
- Withdrawal Symptoms: As the effect of the alcohol or drugs wear off the person may experience symptoms such as: trembling, sweating, anxiety, insomnia, depression, loss of appetite, fatigue, headaches, nausea and vomiting.
Continued Use Despite Negative Consequences: Even though it is causing problems (on the job, in relationships, for one’s health), a person does not stop drugging or drinking.

Why should teenagers be drug tested?

A: Adolescents' brains and bodies are not fully developed, and this makes them more vulnerable to the harmful effects of drug use and can lead to a broad range of adverse effects on their health and behavior. Just a single use of an intoxicating drug can affect a person's decision making and judgement—causing accidents, poor performance in school or sports activities, unplanned risky behavior, and the risk of overdosing. Repeated drug use can lead to serious problems, such as poor academic outcomes, mood changes, and social or family issues caused or worsened by drugs. Repeated use can also lead to the disease of addiction. Studies show that the earlier a teen begins using drugs, the more likely he or she will develop a substance addiction as time goes on.

What is 49 CFR Part 40?

A: 49 CFR Part 40 is the code used for the federal regulations of drug and alcohol testing. It outlines the procedures for the Department of Transportation (DOT) workplace drug testing programs.

What is an adulterated specimen?

A: An adulterated specimen is a specimen that contains a substance that should not be present in human urine. It can also be a substance that is contained in human urine but in an abnormally higher concentration than is normal for human urine.

How do I know if I am taking a private company drug test versus a Department of Transportation (DOT) drug test?

A: All forms that are used for DOT drug tests have the words “Federal Drug Testing Custody and Control Form,” at the top of the chain of custody form.

How are NCAA student-athletes drug tested and how long does it take?

A: NCAA student-athletes are tested with a urine drug test in an observed collection by a collector of the same gender. As long as an adequate specimen is provided the entire process is done in less than 20 minutes.

How does an NCAA student-athlete know whether a supplement or medication is banned?

A: All student-athletes need to consult with their trainer or team physician in regards to any dietary supplements or medication they are taking.

How do I start doing random drug testing on employees?

A: Whichever industry we are talking about; you must begin with a drug testing policy. A written policy is key to an effective testing program.

Why is age of first use of alcohol so critically important?

A: Children who start to drink alcohol before 15 years of age are 5 times more likely to develop dependency and abuse towards alcohol than a person who took their first drink at age 21 or older. The brain doesn’t stop growing until late 20s or early 30s.

Besides alcohol, what are the most commonly abused drugs among young people?

A: Along with alcohol, the most commonly abused drugs among high-school students are: Marijuana, Vicodin, Amphetamines, Cough medicine, Adderall, Tranquilizers, Salvia, Hallucinogens, OxyContin, sedatives, MDMA/ecstasy, inhalants, Cocaine, and Ritalin.

Is marijuana really dangerous?

A: Yes, marijuana has very real health consequences, including drug addiction. While some people think marijuana is a "harmless drug," case studies and statistics show that more teens are in treatment with a diagnosis of marijuana dependence than for all other illegal drugs combined.

What are some of the reasons teenagers decide to try drugs?

A: There is no single reason for teenage drug and alcohol use. But, here are some of the core issues and influence behind early experimentation: other people (parents, peers), popular medications, escape and self-medication, boredom, rebellion, instant gratification, lack of confidence, and misinformation. Ultimately, the reasons for teenage drug and alcohol use are as complex as teenagers themselves. Given these reasons, it’s important that parents understand talk to their kids about the dangers of drinking and using drugs.

What is a refusal to test?

A: Refusals include, but are not limited:
o No-show: Failure to appear at the test collection site at the designated time.
o Failure to remain at the testing site once the collection has begun through the completion of the collection.
o Adulteration: Urine specimen containing a substance or a concentration of a substance inconsistent with human urine.
o Substitution: Urine specimen containing creatinine and specific gravity levels inconsistent with human urine.
o Failure to cooperate with any part of the testing process.

What are the consequences for a verified positive drug test result or a refusal to test?

A: o You will be immediately removed from all safety-sensitive duties following a verified positive drug test result or a verified refusal to test.
o It is the employer’s discretion to determine whether an employee will be rehabilitated or terminated from employment following a positive drug test or a refusal to take a drug test.
o Credentialed crewmembers who have a verified positive drug test result or verified refusal to take a drug test will be subject to further action by the DOT/USCG.

Will my DOT drug test results follow me to other employers?

A: o Yes, your DOT drug and alcohol testing history will follow you to your new DOT/USCG-regulated employer
o DOT regulated employers are required by law to provide certain records of your DOT drug and alcohol testing history to your new DOT/USCG-regulated employer, only when you sign a specific written release regarding that information.
o If you do not provide written consent for the release of this information, the new employer cannot allow you to perform safety-sensitive functions.

What types of DOT/USCG drug tests are conducted?

A: o Pre-employment: Occurs prior to hire or transfer into a safety-sensitive function.
o Random: Unannounced on an ongoing basis, spread reasonably throughout the calendar year, using a scientifically valid method in which each covered employee has an equal chance of being selected for testing.
o Serious Marine Incident: Occurs following a USCG qualifying incident.
o Reasonable Cause: Occurs when a supervisor- based on their training- believes there are signs of alcohol and/or drug use.
o Return-to-duty and Follow-up: Occurs after an employee’s verified positive drug test result or refusal to test. The employee must take a return-to-duty test prior to returning to safety-sensitive functions. The employee will be subject to a minimum of six unannounced follow-up tests in the first twelve months. Depending on the Substance Abuse Professional’s (SAP’s) recommendations, follow-up testing may occur for up to 60 months.
o Periodic: Occurs during the original issuance or renewal or upgrade of a Coast Guard issued license or merchant mariner’s document.
o In addition to DOT testing, you may be tested in accordance with your company’s policy.

What is a serious USCG Marine Incident?

A: The term serious marine incident includes the following events involving a vessel in commercial service:
o Any marine casualty or accident as defined in §4.03–1 which is required by §4.05–1 to be reported to the Coast Guard and which results in any of the following:
 One or more deaths
 An injury to a crewmember, passenger, or other person which requires professional medical treatment beyond first aid, and, in the case of a person employed on board a vessel in commercial service, which renders the individual unfit to perform routine vessel duties
 Damage to property, as defined in §4.05–1(a)(7) of this part, in excess of $100,000
 Actual or constructive total loss of any vessel subject to inspection under 46 U.S.C. 3301
 Actual or constructive total loss of any self-propelled vessel, not subject to inspection under 46 U.S.C. 3301, of 100 gross tons or more
o A discharge of oil of 10,000 gallons or more into the navigable waters of the United States, as defined in 33 U.S.C. 1321, whether or not resulting from a marine casualty.
o A discharge of a reportable quantity of a hazardous substance into the navigable waters of the United States, or a release of a reportable quantity of a hazardous substance into the environment of the United States, whether or not resulting from a marine casualty.

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